Turkish Grey Wolves: Forgotten Story of Cold War-Era Paramilitary Group
In 1952 the Tactical Mobilization Group, a counter-guerilla special force, was founded in Turkey (later absorbed by the Turkish Army's Special Warfare Department). It was established as a part of NATO's covert "stay-behind" anti-Communist initiative, also known as Operation Gladio. The roots of the initiative lay at the Truman Doctrine voiced by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, before a joint session of Congress.
"I ask the Congress to authorize the detail of American civilian and military personnel to Greece and Turkey, at the request of those countries, to assist in the tasks of reconstruction, and for the purpose of supervising the use of such financial and material assistance as may be furnished. I recommend that authority also be provided for the instruction and training of selected Greek and Turkish personnel," Truman said in his official speech, pledging to "protect" Greece and Turkey from "Soviet aggression."
A number of Turkish soldiers were sent to the United States in 1948 in order to undergo training in "special war methods" including assassinations, bombings, kidnappings, attacks, torture and militia training.